Интегрированный подход к управлению внутренними и внешними кризис-коммуникациями в организациях. Часть 1


https://doi.org/10.26794/2304-022X-2019-9-1-28-36

Полный текст:


Аннотация

Несмотря на то, что в научно-исследовательских разработках в области управления организацией значительное место отводится вопросам изучения кризисных ситуаций и кризисного управления, результаты исследований все же остаются достаточно фрагментированными, что затрудняет выбор правильного пути в дальнейшем продвижении в этом направлении. Для решения этой задачи предлагается рассмотреть интегрированную структуру кризисов и управления ими, основанную на исследованиях в области стратегического менеджмента, организационной теории и организационного поведения, а также исследованиях в области связей с общественностью и корпоративных коммуникаций. В посвященной кризисам и кризис-менеджменту литературе можно выделить два основных направления. Первое — где основное внимание уделяется внутренней динамике развития кризиса и второе — где внимание организации сосредоточивается на внешнем управлении заинтересованными сторонами или стейкхолдерами. В настоящей статье сначала будут введены основные понятия для каждого из названных направлений, затем выделены их общие черты и на основе результатов исследований, предложенных в обширном списке приведенной ниже литературы, оба направления будут объединены в одну интегрированную структуру. За основу в этом списке автор принимает исследование Дж. Банди, М. Пфаррера, К. Шорта и Т. Кумбса «Кризис и кризис-менеджмент. Интеграция, интерпретация и исследование» [1] и статью К. Пирсон и Дж. Клар, «Рефрейминг кризис менеджмента» [2]. В целом используемый в настоящей работе список источников охватывает работы зарубежных авторов, опубликованные в 1998–2015 гг.


Об авторе

Т. И. Алифанова
МГУ имени М. В. Ломоносова
Россия

Татьяна Ильдаровна Алифанова — аспирант кафедры управления организацией экономического факультета.

Москва


Список литературы

1. Bundy J., Pfarrer M. D., Short C. E., Coombs W. T. Crises and crisis management: Integration, interpretation and research development. Journal of Management. 2017;43(6):1661–1692. DOI: 10.1177/0149206316680030

2. Pearson C. M., Clair J. A. Reframing crisis management. The Academy of Management Review. 1998;23(1):59–76. DOI: 10.2307/259099

3. Bigley G. A., Roberts K. H. The incident command system: High-reliability organizing for complex and volatile task environments. The Academy of Management Journal. 2001;44(6):1281–1299. DOI: 10.5465/3069401

4. Starbuck W. H., Milliken F. J. Challenger: Fine-tuning the odds until something breaks. Journal of Management Studies. 1988;25(4):319–340. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467–6486.1988.tb00040.x

5. Bundy J., Pfarrer M. D. A burden of responsibility: The role of social approval at the onset of a crisis. The Academy of Management Review. 2015;40(3):345–369. DOI: 10.5465/amr.2013.0027

6. Coombs W. T. Protecting organization reputations during a crisis: The development and application of situational crisis communication theory. Corporate Reputation Review. 2007;10(3):163–176. DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.crr.1550049

7. Elsbach K. D. Managing organizational legitimacy in the California cattle industry: The construction and effectiveness of verbal accounts. Administrative Science Quarterly. 1994;39(1):57–88. DOI: 10.2307/2393494

8. Pfarrer M. D., DeCelles K.A., Smith K. G., Taylor M. S. After the fall: Reintegrating the corrupt organization. The Academy of Management Review. 2008;33(3):730–749. DOI: 10.5465/amr.2008.32465757

9. James E. H., Wooten L. P., Dushek K. Crisis management: Informing a new leadership research agenda. The Academy of Management Annals. 2011;5(1):455–493. DOI: 10.1080/19416520.2011.589594

10. Kahn W. A., Barton M. A., Fellows S. Organizational crises and the disturbance of relational systems. The Academy of Management Review. 2013;38(3):377–396. DOI: 10.5465/amr.2011.0363

11. Coombs W. T. Crisis communication: A developing field. In: Heath R. L., ed. The SAGE handbook of public relations. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.; 2010:477–488.

12. Lampel J., Shamsie J., Shapira Z. Experiencing the improbable: Rare events and organizational learning. Organization Science. 2009;20(5):835–845. DOI: 10.1287/orsc.1090.0479

13. Jaques T. Issue management as a post-crisis discipline: Identifying and responding to issue impacts beyond the crisis. Journal of Public Affairs. 2009;9(1):35–44. DOI: 10.1002/pa.310

14. Roux-Dufort C. Is crisis management (only) a management of exceptions? Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management. 2007;15(2):105–114. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468–5973.2007.00507.x

15. Coombs W. T., Holladay S. J. Reasoned action in crisis communication: An attribution theory-based approach to crisis management. In: Millar D. P., Heath R. L., eds. Responding to crisis: A rhetorical approach to crisis communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2004:95–115.

16. Coombs W. T., Holladay S. J. Helping crisis managers protect reputational assets: Initial tests of the situational crisis communication theory. Management Communication Quarterly. 2002;16(2):165–186. DOI: 10.1177/089331802237233

17. Perrow C. Normal accidents: Living with high-risk technologies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 1984. 464 p.

18. Weick K. E. The collapse of sensemaking in organizations: The Mann Gulch disaster. Administrative Science Quarterly. 1993;38(4):628–652. DOI: 10.2307/2393339

19. Gillespie N., Dietz G. Trust repair after an organization-level failure. The Academy of Management Review. 2009;34(1):127–145. DOI: 10.5465/amr.2009.35713319

20. Pfarrer M. D., Smith K. G., Bartol K. M., Khanin D. M., Zhang X. Coming forward: The effects of social and regulatory forces on the voluntary restatement of earnings subsequent to wrongdoing. Organization Science. 2008;19(3):386–403. DOI: 10.1287/orsc.1070.0323

21. Veil S. R. Mindful learning in crisis management. Journal of Business Communication. 2011;48(2):116–147. DOI: 10.1177/0021943610382294

22. D’Aveni R.A., MacMillan I. C. Crisis and the content of managerial communications: A study of the focus of attention of top managers in surviving and failing firms. Administrative Science Quarterly. 1990;35(4):634–657. DOI: 10.2307/2393512

23. Marcus A. A., Goodman R. Victims and shareholders: The dilemmas of presenting corporate policy during a crisis. The Academy of Management Journal. 1991;34(2):281–305. DOI: 10.2307/256443

24. Gephart R. P., Van Maanen J., Oberlechner T. Organizations and risk in late modernity. Organization Studies. 2009;30(2–3):141–155. DOI: 10.1177/0170840608101474

25. Gittell J. H., Cameron K., Lim S., Rivas V. Relationships, layoffs, and organizational resilience: Airline industry responses to September 11. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 2006;42(3):300–329. DOI: 10.1177/0021886306286466

26. Weick K. E., Sutcliffe K. Managing the unexpected: Assuring high performance in an age of complexity. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass; 2001. 224 p.

27. Weick K. E., Sutfcliffe K. M., Obstfeld D. Organizing for high reliability: Processes of collective mindfulness. In: Staw B. M., Cummings L. L., eds. Research in organizational behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press; 1999:81–123.

28. Rudolph J. W., Repenning N. R. Disaster dynamics: Understanding the role of interruptions and stress in organizational collapse. Administrative Science Quarterly. 2002;47(1):1–30. DOI: 10.2307/3094889

29. Marcus A. A., Nichols M. L. On the edge: Heeding the warnings of unusual events. Organization Science. 1999;10(4):482–499. DOI: 10.1287/orsc.10.4.482

30. Lin Z., Zhao X., Ismail K., Carley K. M. Organizational design and restructuring in response to crises: Lessons from computational modeling and real-world cases. Organization Science. 2006;17(5):598–618. DOI: 10.1287/orsc.1060.0210

31. Vogus T. J., Welbourne T. M. Structuring for high reliability: HR practices and mindful processes in reliability-seeking organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 2003;24(7):877–903. DOI: 10.1002/job.221

32. Ashforth B. E., Anand V. The normalization of corruption in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior. 2003;25:1–52. DOI: 10.1016/S 0191–3085(03)25001–2

33. Greve H., Palmer D., Pozner J.-E. Organizations gone wild: The causes, processes, and consequences of organizational misconduct. The Academy of Management Annals. 2010;4(1):53–107. DOI: 10.1080/19416521003654186

34. Harris J. D., Bromiley P. Incentives to cheat: The influence of executive compensation and firm performance on financial misrepresentation. Organization Science. 2007;18(3):350–367. DOI: 10.1287/orsc.1060.0241

35. O’Connor J.P., Priem R. L., Coombs J. E., Gilley K. M. Do CEO stock options prevent or promote fraudulent financial reporting? The Academy of Management Journal. 2006;49(3):483–500. DOI: 10.2307/20159777

36. Schnatterly K. Increasing firm value through detection and prevention of white-collar crime. Strategic Management Journal. 2003;24(7):587–614. DOI: 10.1002/smj.330

37. Wowak A. J., Mannor M. J., Wowak K. D. Throwing caution to the wind: The effect of CEO stock option pay on the incidence of product safety problems. Strategic Management Journal. 2015;36(7):1082–1092. DOI: 10.1002/smj.2277

38. Clair J. A., Waddock S. A “total” responsibility management approach to crisis management and signal detection in organizations. In: Pearson C. M., Roux-Dufort C., Clair J. A., eds. International handbook of organizational crisis management. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.; 2007:299–314.

39. Ulmer R. R. Effective crisis management through established stakeholder relationships: Malden Mills as a case study. Management Communication Quarterly. 2001;14(4):590–615. DOI: 10.1177/0893318901144003

40. Ulmer R. R., Sellnow T. L. Crisis management and the discourse of renewal: Understanding the potential for positive outcomes of crisis. Public Relations Review. 2002;28(4):361–365. DOI: 10.1016/S0363–8111(02)00165–0

41. Alpaslan C. M., Green S. E., Mitroff I. I. Corporate governance in the context of crises: Towards a stakeholder theory of crisis management. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management. 2009;17(1):38–49. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468–5973.2009.00555.x

42. Ulmer R. R., Sellnow T. L., Seeger M. W. Effective crisis communication: Moving from crisis to opportunity. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.; 2011. 264 p.

43. Coombs W. T. Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.; 2015. 256 p.

44. James E. H., Wooten L. P. Diversity crises: How firms manage discrimination lawsuits. The Academy of Management Journal. 2006;49(6):1103–1118. DOI: 10.5465/amj.2006.23478091

45. Lind E. A., Greenberg J., Scott K. S., Welchans T. D. 2000. The winding road from employee to complainant: Situational and psychological determinants of wrongful termination claims. Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000;45(3):557–590. DOI: 10.2307/2667109

46. McDonnell M.-H., King B. Keeping up appearances: Reputational threat and impression management after social movement boycotts. Administrative Science Quarterly. 2013;58(3):387–419. DOI: 10.1177/0001839213500032

47. Brockner J. B., James E. H. Toward an understanding of when executives see crisis as opportunity. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 2008;44(1):94–115. DOI: 10.1177/0021886307313824

48. Dane E., Pratt M. G. Exploring intuition and its role in managerial decision making. The Academy of Management Review. 2007;32(1):33–54. DOI: 10.5465/amr.2007.23463682

49. James E. H., Wooten L. P. Leading under pressure: From surviving to thriving before, during, and after a crisis. New York: Psychology Press/Routledge; 2010. 300 p.

50. Mitroff I. I. The psychological effects of crises: Deny denial — grieve before a crisis occurs. In: Pearson C. M., Roux-Dufort C., Clair J. A., eds. International handbook of organizational crisis management. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.; 2007:195–220.

51. Sayegh L., Anthony W. P., Perrewé P. L. Managerial decision-making under crisis: The role of emotion in an intuitive decision process. Human Resource Management Review. 2004;14(2):179–199. DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2004.05.002

52. Vaaler P. M., McNamara G. Crisis and competition in expert organizational decision making: Credit rating agencies and their response to turbulence in emerging economies. Organization Science. 2004;15(6):687–703. DOI: 10.1287/orsc.1040.0089

53. Howell J. M., Shamir B. The role of followers in the charismatic leadership process: Relationships and their consequences. The Academy of Management Review. 2005;30(1):96–112. DOI: 10.2307/20159097

54. Pillai R., Meindl J. R. Context and charisma: A “meso” level examination of the relationship of organic structure, collectivism, and crisis to charismatic leadership. Journal of Management. 1998;24(5):643–671. DOI: 10.1016/S0149–2063(99)80078–6

55. Majchrzak A., Jarvenpaa S. L., Hollingshead A. B. Coordinating expertise among emergent groups responding to disasters. Organization Science. 2007;18(1):147–161. DOI: 10.1287/orsc.1060.0228

56. Roberts K. H., Madsen P., Desai V. Organizational sensemaking during crisis. In: Pearson C. M., Roux-Dufort C., Clair J. A., eds. International handbook of organizational crisis management. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.; 2007:107–122.

57. Withers M. C., Corley K. G., Hillman A. J. Stay or leave: Director identities and voluntary exit from the board during organizational crisis. Organization Science. 2012;23(3):835–850. DOI: 10.1287/orsc.1110.0660

58. Dowell G. W., Shackell M. B., Stuart N. V. Boards, CEOs, and surviving a financial crisis: Evidence from the internet shakeout. Strategic Management Journal. 2011;32(10):1025–1045. DOI: 10.1002/smj.923

59. Lee S. H., Makhija M. Flexibility in internationalization: Is it valuable during an economic crisis? Strategic Management Journal. 2009;30(5):537–555. DOI: 10.1002/smj.742

60. Lange D., Washburn N. T. Understanding attributions of corporate social irresponsibility. The Academy of Management Review. 2012;37(2):300–326. DOI: 10.5465/amr.2010.0522

61. Rhee M., Valdez M. E. Contextual factors surrounding reputation damage with potential implications for reputation repair. The Academy of Management Review. 2009;34(1):146–168. DOI: 10.5465/AMR.2009.35713324

62. Mazzei A., Ravazzani S. Internal crisis communication strategies to protect trust relationships: A study of Italian companies. International Journal of Business Communication. 2015;52(3):319–337. DOI: 10.1177/2329488414525447

63. Mazzei A., Kim J., Dell’Oro C. Strategic value of employee relationships and communicative actions: Overcoming corporate crisis with quality internal communication. International Journal of Strategic Communication. 2012;6(1):31–44. DOI: 10.1080/1553118X.2011.634869

64. Frandsen F., Johansen W. The study of internal crisis communication: Towards an integrative framework. Corporate Communications: An International Journal. 2011;16(4):347–361. DOI: 10.1108/13563281111186977

65. Johansen W., Aggerholm H. K., Frandsen F. Entering new territory: A study of internal crisis management and crisis communication in organizations. Public Relations Review. 2012;38(2):270–279. DOI: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.11.008


Дополнительные файлы

Для цитирования: Алифанова Т.И. Интегрированный подход к управлению внутренними и внешними кризис-коммуникациями в организациях. Часть 1. Управленческие науки. 2019;9(1):28-36. https://doi.org/10.26794/2304-022X-2019-9-1-28-36

For citation: Alifanova T.I. Integrated Approach to the Management of Internal and External Crisis Communications in Organizations. Part 1. Management Science. 2019;9(1):28-36. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.26794/2304-022X-2019-9-1-28-36

Просмотров: 81

Обратные ссылки

  • Обратные ссылки не определены.


Creative Commons License
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 2304-022X (Print)
ISSN 2618-9941 (Online)